Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL)
|Molecular mass||2.5 mDa|
|Composition||22.3% phospholipids |
9.6% free cholesterol
42.2% cholesterol ester
22% protein, mainly Apolipoprotein B100
Atherosclerosis is characterized by a narrowing of arterial walls due to the excessive accumulation of lipids. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the principal form of cholesterol that accumulates in atherosclerotic lesions or plaques; however, LDL must first be modified into an oxidized structure (oxLDL). It works as pro inflammatory, chemotactic factor for macrophages and immune reactive cells. This oxLDL forms complexes with β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GPI) that lead to transformation of macrophages to lipid holding foam cells mediated by the so-called scavenger receptors. The process is amplified by the presence of antibodies against the oxLDL-β2GPI-complex via Fcγ-receptors.
An early resp. increased development of atherosclerosis in patients with certain systemic auto-immune diseases cannot completely be explained by conventional risk factors. Oxidative stress that leads to formation of oxLDL and subsequently to complex formation with β2GPI is often found in these patients. Also in many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, increased values for oxLDL-β2GPI-complexes are found.
Antibodies against oxLDL-β2GPI complexes may represent a serologic risk factor for arterial thromboses and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Anti-phospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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