Synonym VTN
Molecular mass 78.000 Da
Synthesis Liver
Plasma concentration 250 - 450 µg/ml
Normal range 70 - 130%

Vitronectin belongs to the pexin family. It is a multifunctional glycoprotein, which can be found in plasma and in the serum of the extracellular matrix. Vitronectin supports cell adhesion reactions in the coagulation and immune system. It inhibits the membrane damaging effect of the cytolytic complement system cascade and binds various serpins (e.g. PAI-1). By forming a binary complex with PAI-1, it can also directly regulate its enzyme activity.

Clinical significance

A reduced plasma concentration of vitronectin can, for instance, be found in disseminated intravascular coagulation or degenerative liver diseases. Depositions of vitronectin are linked to atherosclerotic lesions.


Scientific investigations of different mechanisms or medical properties.


  1. Jenne D, Stanley KK. Nucleotide sequence and organization of the human S-protein gene: repeating peptide motifs in the "pexin" family and a model for their evolution. Biochemistry 26, 6735-6742, 1987.
  2. Preissner KT, Seiffert D. Role of vitronectin and its receptors in haemostasis and vascular remodeling. Thromb Res 89 (1), 1-21, 1986.
  3. Felding-Habermann B, Cheresh DA. Vitronectin and its receptors. Curr Opin Cell Biol 5 (5), 864-868, 1993.
  4. Zhou A, Huntington JA, Pannu NS, Carrell RW, Read RJ . How vitronectin binds PAI-1 to modulate fibrinolysis and cell migration. Nat Struct Biol 10 (7), 541-544, 2003.
  5. Kamikubo Y, De Guzman R, Kroon G, Curriden S, Neels JG, Churchill MJ, Dawson P, O?dziej S, Jagielska A, Scheraga HA, Loskutoff DJ, Dyson HJ. Disulfide bonding arrangements in active forms of the somatomedin B domain of human vitronectin. Biochemistry 43 (21) 6519-6534, 2004.
  6. Mayasundari A, Whittemore NA, Serpersu EH, Peterson CB. The solution structure of the N-terminal domain of human vitronectin: proximal sites that regulate fibrinolysis and cell migration. J Biol Chem 279 (28), 29359-29366, 2004.
  7. Kamikubo Y, Okumura Y, Loskutoff DJ. Identification of the disulfide bonds in the recombinant somatomedin B domain of human vitronectin. J Biol Chem 207 (30), 27109-27119, 2004.
  8. Horn NA, Hurst GB, Mayasundari A, Whittemore NA, Serpersu EH, Peterson CB. Assignment of the four disulfides in the N-terminal somatomedin B domain of native vitronectin isolated from human plasma". J Biol Chem 279 (34), 35867-35878, 2004.
  9. Xu D, Baburaj K, Peterson CB, Xu Y. Model for the three-dimensional structure of vitronectin: predictions for the multi-domain protein from threading and docking. Proteins 44 (3), 312-320, 2001.
  10. Leavesley DI, Kashyap AS, Croll T, Sivaramakrishnan M, Shokoohmand A, Hollier BG, Upton Z. Vitronectin--master controller   or micromanager? IUBMB Life. Oct 65(10), 807-18, 2013.
  11. Li R, Luo M, Ren M, Chen N, Xia J, Deng X, Zeng M, Yan K, Luo T, Wu J. Vitronectin regulation of vascular endothelial growth  factor-mediated angiogenesis. J Vasc Res. 51(2), 110-7, 2014.
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